About: Penn and Associates, Inc.
Brief overview of services
Penn and Associates provide full-service marketing research. We offer
verifiable mixed-mode (online, postcard-to-website invitations, email
invitations with embedded survey link, and on-site intercepts) data
collection and address-based sampling (probability-based sampling).
Our research methodology provides our clients with statistically
significant sample and data results where recommendations can be
quantifiably projected onto the general population for all respondent
demographic groups (percentages the same or close to census data),
even those difficult to reach and often under-represented.
We are committed to providing relevant, accurate, and reliable
marketing research information to all kinds of organizations. When so
much depends on the truthfulness of honest, accurate, marketing
research, rely on the full-service resources of Penn and Associates,
Inc. to benefit you and your organization.
We conduct marketing research that is free from bias and is designed
to better link our clients with their customers.
Areas of expertise
Data collection: Mail, Internet, observation, one-on-one in-depth
interviews, focus groups, and secondary source research services are
all available. Our current recommended methodology is address-based
sampling utilizing the U.S. Postal Service Computerized Delivery
Sequence File because it can be used to select probability-based
samples of addresses in finely defined areas.
Evaluations: Many organizations have a wealth of data, but little or no
interpretation of what their information really means. Penn and
Associates provide analysis and trending for such data. We recommend
methods, criteria, and systems for ongoing information extraction.
Web survey considerations: Responsive Design means that
respondents can access questionnaires from any device (PC, laptop,
tablet, and smartphone) and complete surveys in their own time and
at their own convenience. With careful, effective language and
logo/name recognition, we receive statistically significant response
rates for our clients.
B2B Surveys: Penn and Associates observe that web-based data
collection achieves a higher percentage of larger organizations than
was the case using traditional methods.
Consumer Surveys: Deteriorating response rates and evolving
technology dictates that marketing research move away from
telephone surveys. Penn and Associates offer a probability-based
sample (i.e. not a panel) address-based sampling plan utilizing USPS’s
Delivery Sequence File, which accounts for 100% of U.S. addresses.
Addresses in our samples are geographically stratified proportional to
the target population. Our sampling is designed to achieve a
statistically significant random sample of completed interviews. Our
graphic designer creates 4-color postcards containing a unique online
survey URL. Our printer mails the postcards from Cleveland, Ohio.
Reports: Penn and Associates provide detailed reporting. Our
custom-built online survey sites are secure, exhaustively tested, and
designed for ease-of-use by respondents. We strictly observe the
confidentiality and rights of consumers and organizations providing
information. Reports include quotations and insights from answers to
verbatim questions, Full Report, Infographics (for dissemination),
Executive Summary (for dissemination), Methodology,
Recommendations, Presentation slides, and onsite presentations.
Study Design: This begins with problem definition and secondary
research. Penn and Associates design questionnaires to extract from
respondents the precise information needs of our clients. Information
needs become survey questions with language that motivates
respondents to complete interviews.
Method: Penn and Associates provide both qualitative and quantitative
Penn and Associates' focus group moderators are ethical and trained to
extract insights and details from participants. We consider that focus
groups conducted after quantitative research provide detailed
clarification of any issues that may be raised by a significant number of
Quantitative research requires large samples. It is more conclusive
than qualitative research and can be used in decision making. If done
with integrity, these data will combine well with secondary sources and
published research reports (especially from the U.S. Census
Bureau). Quantitative research results can be projected onto
populations with a specific degree of confidence (depending on both
the sample size and the percentage of respondents responding the
same way to a question) that the results would be the same if the
entire population had been interviewed.
Penn and Associates provide appropriate confidence levels and
confidence intervals for all sample sizes. A convenient level of
confidence is 95% with +/-5 confidence interval; this is an industry
standard. Up to a certain point, the larger the sample, the higher the
confidence level. A decision about sample size is typically based on
factors such as time, budget, and necessary degree of precision.
Survey data is checked to identify incomplete, inconsistent, or
ambiguous responses. We conduct extensive statistical testing, such as
correlation and comparing "each response to all," to ensure a random
sample has been achieved. Achieving a true random sample is an
essential part of the initial research design plan that is developed prior
to any data collection.
A frequency distribution produces tables of counts, percentages, and
cumulative percentages for all the values associated with the variables.
The mean, mode, and median of a frequency distribution are measures
of central tendency (central limit theorem). The normal distribution is
assumed in describing the variability of the distribution. These
measures include the range, variance, standard deviation, coefficient
of variation, and inter-quartile range. Other statistical tests utilized by
Penn and Associates include analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression,
correlation, factor, and cluster analyses.
Reports, articles, and presentations
Experts at Penn and Associates write reports and articles
interpreting research data. Reports typically include an executive
summary followed by a full and detailed report with tables and graphs.
Reports conclude with recommendations. Slide presentation of the
information is also available. Reports are accompanied by full-sets of
data tables. Articles written for publication by Penn and Associates are
printed in national journals and trade press.